What is it?
Arthroplasty is surgery performed to relieve pain and restore range of motion in a dysfunctional joint.

What’s the goal of arthroplasty?
The goal of arthroplasty is to restore the function of a joint and relieve pain.
Arthroplasty is performed on people suffering from severe pain and disabling joint stiffness. Osteoarthritis (OA), a degenerative joint disease, is the most common condition causing joint destruction with pain and impaired movement. Other causes include rheumatoid arthritis, synovitis, and bone diseases, which are enable to destroy cartilage.

Arthroplasty is performed under general (affecting the entire body) or regional (numbing a specific area of the body, such as spinal block) anesthesia in a hospital, by an orthopedic surgeon. Although many hospitals and medical centers perform common types of joint surgery, orthopedic hospitals that specialize in joint surgery tend to have higher success rates than less specialized centers. In joint resection, the surgeon makes an incision at the joint, then carefully removes the minimum amount of bone necessary to allow free motion. The more bone that remains, the more stable the joint. Ligament attachments are preserved as much as possible. In interpositional reconstruction, both bones of the joint are reshaped, and a disk of material is placed between the bones to prevent their rubbing together. Length of hospital stay depends on the joint affected; in the absence of complications, a typical stay is only a few days.

The artificial joint

Bone cement

Uncemented Implant

After surgery
Immediately after surgery, while still in the hospital, patients will be given pain medications for the recovery period and antibiotics to prevent infection. When patients are discharged after joint surgery, they must be careful not to overstress or destabilize the joint, requiring rest at home for a period of weeks. Physical therapy will begin immediately to improve strength and range of motion; it is the most important aid to recovery and may continue for several months. Activity may be resumed gradually, using devices if necessary, such as walkers or crutches, as recommended by the physical therapist.
As with any major surgery, there is always a risk of an allergic reaction to anesthesia, post-operative infection, or the formation of blood clots, that may cause pain and swelling near the surgery site and travel through the veins to other parts of the body. A joint that has undergone surgery is less stable than a healthy joint and dislocation or loosening of the resected joint may occur, especially with inappropriate physical activity.